Glossary

Accommodation Platform/Rig

An offshore platform, or semi-submersible rig, built or adapted to provide living quarters for drilling and production personnel.

Acreage

Land leased for oil and gas exploration and development; usually descriptive of more than one lease.

Additive

A term used generally to indicate special chemicals that may be added to products to improve their characteristics.

Aerosol

The solution / liquid which is filled along with gas to enable spraying.

Air Drilling

A rotary drilling technique in which compressed air is used instead of fluids to circulate, or bring to the surface, bits of rock and other cuttings from the drill bit.

Air Injection

An enhanced recovery technique in which air is injected into the petroleum formation to increase reservoir pressure.

Air Lift

A production technique in which an air balance beam pumping unit is used to lift oil to the surface.

Aliphatic solvents

Primarily white spirit and hexane for industrial use.

Alkylation

A refining process for converting light, gaseous olefins into high-octane gasoline components (the reverse of cracking).

Alloy

A composition of two or more metals.

Annulus

The space between the drill string and the earthen wall of the well bore, or between the production tubing and the casing.

API Gravity

A measurement of the gravity (weight per unit volume) of crude oil and other liquid hydrocarbons by a system recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API). The measuring scale is calibrated in terms of "API degrees." The lower the API gravity, the heavier the oil. The higher the API gravity, the lighter the oil.

Appraisal Drilling

Drilling carried out following the discovery of a new field to determine the physical extent, amount of reserves and likely production rate of the field.

Appraisal Well

A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling program.

ARDS

The refiner's shorthand for "atmospheric residual desulfurization," a refining process that removes sulfur from oils.

Aromatics

Class of hydrocarbons that have at least one benzene ring as part of their structure. Generally describes benzene and benzene derivatives. Phillips-produced aromatics include benzene, toluene and xylene. These products are used as components of unleaded gasolines and as feedstocks for petrochemicals such as cyclohexane and paraxylene, both of which are used in end products like nylons and polyesters.

Artificial Drives

Techniques for producing oil after depletion or in lieu of natural drives; includes waterflooding, natural gas reinjection, inert gas injection, flue gas injection and in-situ combustion.

Artificial Lift

Any of the techniques, other than natural drives, for bringing oil to the surface.

Associated Gas

Natural gas found in association with oil, either dissolved in the oil or as a cap of free gas above the oil.

Associated Liquids

Liquid hydrocarbons found in association with natural gas.

Atmospheric distillation

The distillation of crude oil under pressure, slightly higher than atmospheric. This is the basic process that takes place in oil refining.

Aviation Gasoline

High-performance petroleum fuels made specifically for piston engine, propeller- driven airplanes.